What drives inflammation in type 2 diabetes? Not glucose, says new research

To date, the underlying causes of inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been poorly understood, which has hampered efforts to develop treatments to prevent complications from a disease that is the third leading cause of death in the United States. But new research at the University of Kentucky shows that changes to mitochondria — the powerhouse […]

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Potential treatment target for Crohn’s disease

There is no cure for the more than 1.6 million people in the United States living with Crohn’s disease (CD) and its symptoms, including abdominal pain, intestinal distress and severe weight-loss. CD is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the body’s own immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract, and treatment is focused on controlling the symptoms of […]

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Sheaths drive powerful new artificial muscles

Over the last 15 years, researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas and their international colleagues have invented several types of strong, powerful artificial muscles using materials ranging from high-tech carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to ordinary fishing line. In a new study published July 12 in the journal Science, the researchers describe their latest advance, called sheath-run artificial muscles, or […]

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A deep-dive into the impact of arthritis drugs on gene expression: New analytical approach could serve as powerful tool to evaluate and compare treatments

A new computational framework has revealed key differences between four rheumatoid arthritis medications and their impact on biological pathways in mice. Niki Karagianni of Biomedcode Hellas SA, Greece, and colleagues present their new approach and findings in PLOS Computational Biology. People with rheumatoid arthritis often receive medications that target and inhibit Tumor-Necrosis Factor (TNF), a protein involved in the painful […]

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Exercise helps prevent cartilage damage caused by arthritis

Exercise helps to prevent the degradation of cartilage caused by osteoarthritis, according to a new study from Queen Mary University of London. The researchers show for the first time how mechanical forces experienced by cells in joints during exercise prevent cartilage degradation by suppressing the action of inflammatory molecules which cause osteoarthritis. The study, published in the journal Osteoarthritis and […]

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Blunting pain’s emotional component: Blocking a type of opioid receptor restores motivation

Chronic pain involves more than just hurting. People suffering from pain often experience sadness, depression and lethargy. That’s one reason opioids can be so addictive — they not only dampen the pain but also make people feel euphoric. What if it were possible to develop a pain killer that could curb the negative emotions associated with pain without causing euphoria? […]

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Pain can be a self-fulfilling prophecy: New brain imaging research shows that when we expect something to hurt it does, even if the stimulus isn’t so painful

Expect a shot to hurt and it probably will, even if the needle poke isn’t really so painful. Brace for a second shot and you’ll likely flinch again, even though — second time around — you should know better. That’s the takeaway of a new brain imaging study published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour which found that expectations about […]

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