New yardstick offers diagnostic and treatment guidance for idiopathic anaphylaxis: Guidelines on next steps when there is no clear cause of severe reactions

Many people in danger of the severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis understand exactly what they need to avoid to stay safe. For some it’s an allergy to food, for others it can be insect stings, medications, hormones or even physical factors like exercise. But according to the new “Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Yardstick,” there are people for whom diagnosis and treatment […]

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Stem cell researchers reactivate ‘back-up genes’ in the lab: Researchers in Belgium present new findings on X chromosome reactivation

Vincent Pasque and his team at KU Leuven have unravelled parts of a mechanism that may one day help to treat Rett syndrome and other genetic disorders linked to the X chromosome. Women and most female mammals have two X chromosomes, but only one of these is active in any given cell. This active X chromosome is selected through a […]

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Dizziness of unknown cause may be perception disorder: Perception disorders may throw those affected off balance

Many patients with functional dizziness look back on a long odyssey to numerous doctors, because no organic causes could be found. Now for the first time, an experiment at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has identified possible causes of the disorder: problems with the processing of sensory-motor signals in the brain that resemble those associated with dizziness due to […]

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Birthweight, height together provide insight into future heart health

It’s the proportionately of a newborn — a measure that includes both birthweight and length — that may best tell doctors whether a child is born with an increased risk for heart problems later in life, investigators report. Birthweight, while important, tells only part of the story of fetal growth, while the additional consideration of length, gives a more complete […]

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Cascade exacerbates storage diseases: Researchers show that a defective degradation enzyme triggers a series of consequential damages

In rare, hereditary storage diseases such as Sandhoff’s disease or Tay-Sachs syndrome, the metabolic waste from accumulating gangliosides cannot be properly disposed of in the nerve cells because important enzymes are missing. The consequences for the patients are grave: They range from movement restrictions to blindness, mental decline and early death. Scientists at the University of Bonn now demonstrate why […]

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Which brain hemorrhage patients have treatable underlying conditions

When blood vessels in the brain rupture, or hemorrhage, and cause a stroke, large areas of the brain can be permanently damaged. Depending on the cause, some brain hemorrhages may hide underlying lesions that can be treated with surgery, embolization, radiation, or other treatments. Using MRI scans of patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, clinical researchers at Jefferson have teased apart […]

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A gut check for heart failure patients

Heart failure patients who consume more dietary fibre tend to have healthier gut bacteria, which is associated with reduced risk of death or need of a heart transplant. The fibre study was presented today at Heart Failure 2019, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). “Our gut microbiota is composed of trillions of microorganisms that have the […]

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Defects in heart valve cilia during fetal development cause mitral valve prolapse

Genetic variation in heart valve cells of the developing fetus create the blueprint for the later development of mitral valve prolapse, according to the cover story of today’s Science Translational Medicine. The mutations cause defects in antenna-like cellular structures called primary cilia that previously had no known function in the heart valves. These findings were made possible by an international […]

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Behavioral disorders in kids with autism linked to reduced brain connectivity

More than a quarter of children with autism spectrum disorder are also diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorders. For the first time, Yale researchers have identified a possible biological cause: a key mechanism that regulates emotion functions differently in the brains of the children who exhibit disruptive behavior. The study appears in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging. “Disruptive behaviors such […]

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Early exposure to pesticides linked to small increased risk of autism spectrum disorder: Findings support efforts to prevent exposure to pesticides during pregnancy

Exposure to common agricultural pesticides before birth and in the first year of life is associated with a small to moderately increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with infants of women without such exposure, finds a study published in The BMJ today. The researchers say their findings support efforts to prevent exposure to pesticides during pregnancy to protect […]

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