Alzheimer’s disease could be treated by zapping patients’ brains
Alzheimer’s disease could be treated by zapping the brains of older people with electricity for just 25 minutes as study proves it can boost the memory of over-60s
- It takes only a weak electrical current to restore thinking powers, experts say
- The tiny pulses of electricity are thought to synchronise their brainwaves
- Older people zapped performed as well as those in their 20s in a memory test
Zapping the brains of older people can give them the memory of someone in their 20s.
It takes only a weak electrical current to restore the thinking powers of people over 60, scientists found.
The tiny pulses of electricity are thought to synchronise their brainwaves so their brain works more efficiently.
Older people zapped with an electric current performed as well as those in their twenties in a memory test spotting the differences in pictures.
The breakthrough could lead to people wearing skull caps or gaming style headset devices to treat a host of neurological disorders – from dementia to autism
It could lead to a headset older people could wear to ‘turbo-charge’ their failing memories, or potentially a future treatment for dementia.
Dr Robert Reinhart, who led a study on the technique from Boston University, said: ‘These findings are important because they not only give us new insights into the brain basis for age-related working memory decline.
‘But they also show us that the negative age-related changes are not unchangeable – that we can bring back the more superior working memory function that we had when we were much younger.
‘This is important because everyone knows the global population is rapidly ageing.’
Scientists now believe older people can partly blame their bad memories on two regions of the brain getting ‘disconnected’.
The temporal and prefrontal parts of the brain work together in young people, providing the short-term ‘working memory’ that makes it easy to remember shopping lists and telephone numbers and make decisions.
Their brainwaves – the electrical waves which ripple through the brain as brain cells work at the same time and ‘talk’ to each other – are all synced up.
In older people, these brainwaves were found to be out of rhythm, but a replacement electric current outside the head may set them back on track.
Researchers used an electric current on 42 people aged 60 to 76 who were tested on their memory with very similar pictures shown three seconds apart.
Compared to 42 people aged 20 to 29, they predictably did worse in the test, which involved spotting missing, rotated, distorted or added items in the pictures from memory.
But when they were zapped with electricity, for just 25 minutes, their scores improved from around eight out of 10 to nine out of 10. This put them at the same level as people in their 20s.
The study, published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, found the effects of being zapped with electricity lasted for at least 50 minutes.
The pulsing electric current was matched to the rhythm of the brainwaves recorded by electrodes inside their head.
Professor Robert Howard, professor of old age psychiatry at University College London, said: ‘While this is an interesting and positive piece of research, suggesting that carefully positioned and timed electrical stimulation of the brain can potentially improve short-term memory function in older people, I would caution against any uncritical assumption that this will translate into clinical benefit.
‘The findings need to be replicated under clinical trial conditions, with larger numbers of participants and with robust blinding of subjects and outcome assessors.’
Dr James Pickett, head of research at Alzheimer’s Society, said: ‘This study is interesting because it suggests this non-invasive technique using electrical stimulation may improve the working memory of older people.
‘However, this research didn’t look at whether this might also be helpful for people with dementia.
‘Altering and correcting the circuitry of the brain with technology is a new exciting avenue of research for dementia.
‘Deep-brain stimulation, a surgical procedure used in Parkinson’s, is proof of principle that this approach may one day be fruitful for dementia.’
WHAT IS ALZHEIMER’S?
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative disease of the brain, in which build-up of abnormal proteins causes nerve cells to die.
This disrupts the transmitters that carry messages, and causes the brain to shrink.
More than 5 million people suffer from the disease in the US, where it is the 6th leading cause of death.
As brain cells die, the functions they provide are lost.
That includes memory, orientation and the ability to think and reason.
The progress of the disease is slow and gradual.
On average, patients live five to seven years after diagnosis, but some may live for ten to 15 years.
- Loss of short-term memory
- Behavioral changes
- Mood swings
- Difficulties dealing with money or making a phone call
- Severe memory loss, forgetting close family members, familiar objects or places
- Becoming anxious and frustrated over inability to make sense of the world, leading to aggressive behavior
- Eventually lose ability to walk
- May have problems eating
- The majority will eventually need 24-hour care
Source: Alzheimer’s Association
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