‘Can you hear me, now?’ A new strategy ‘raises the volume’ of gut-body communication

Throughout the gastrointestinal tract there are specialized hormone-producing cells called enteroendocrine cells and, although they comprise only a small population of the total cells, they are one of the most important moderators of communication between the gut and the rest of the body. Studying these cells, however, has been difficult. “Enteroendocrine cells are extremely challenging to study because we just […]

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Synthetic joint lubricant holds promise for osteoarthritis

A new type of treatment for osteoarthritis, currently in canine clinical trials, shows promise for eventual use in humans. The treatment, developed by Cornell University biomedical engineers, is a synthetic version of a naturally occurring joint lubricant that binds to the surface of cartilage in joints and acts as a cushion during high-impact activities, such as running. “When the production […]

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Mutant bacterial receptor could point to new therapies against opportunistic pathogen

Researchers have developed a new mutant version of a receptor used by a bacterial pathogen for a chemical communication process called quorum sensing, according to a study published June 13 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Bonnie Bassler of Princeton University, and colleagues. As the authors note, the mutant receptor could be used to identify therapeutic compounds that inhibit […]

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Body composition shown to affect energy spent standing versus sitting: Findings support increased standing time as a simple way to boost energy expenditure

A person’s body composition could influence the difference between the amount of energy they spend while sitting versus standing, according to new research published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE. Conducted by Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete of the University of Granada, Spain, and colleagues, this work adds to mounting evidence that more energy is expended while standing than while sitting or […]

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Veteran-directed care program is effective: Study suggests popular program that gives veterans flexible budgets for at-home caregivers should be expanded nationwide

A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) and Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System researchers finds that a program that gives veterans flexible budgets for at-home caregivers is at least as effective as other veteran purchased-care services. Published in the June issue of Health Affairs, the study shows that, although the average enrollee in the Veterans […]

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A treasure map to understanding the epigenetic causes of disease

More than 15 years after scientists first mapped the human genome, most diseases still cannot be predicted based on one’s genes, leading researchers to explore epigenetic causes of disease. But the study of epigenetics cannot be approached the same way as genetics, so progress has been slow. Now, researchers at the USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of […]

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A new way to wind the development clock of cardiac muscle cells

These days, scientists can collect a few skin or blood cells, wipe out their identities, and reprogram them to become virtually any other kind of cell in the human body, from neurons to heart cells. The journey from skin cell to another type of functional cell involves converting them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are similar to the […]

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New computational tool improves gene identification

Like finding a needle in a haystack, identifying genes that are involved in particular diseases can be an arduous and time consuming process. Looking to improve this process, a team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine has developed a new bioinformatics tool that analyzes CRISPR pooled screen data and identifies candidates for potentially relevant genes with greater sensitivity […]

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Dentists can be the first line of defense against domestic violence

The University of Arizona College of Medicine — Phoenix and Midwestern University have published an article to bring to light the important role dentists can play in identifying domestic violence victims. Published April 11 in the Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, the article reports that as much as 75 percent of head and neck trauma associated with domestic violence […]

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Detecting pollution with a compact laser source

Researchers at EPFL have come up with a new middle infrared light source that can detect greenhouse and other gases, as well as molecules in a person’s breath. The compact system, which resembles a tiny suitcase, contains just two parts: a standard laser together with a photonic chip measuring a few millimeters across. The research is detailed in an article […]

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