Immunologists identify T cell homing beacons for lungs

Scientists have identified a pair of molecules critical for T cells, part of the immune system, to travel to and populate the lungs. A potential application could be strengthening vaccines against respiratory pathogens such as influenza. The findings were published online Thursday, September 26 in Journal of Experimental Medicine. Much research on immunity to influenza virus focuses on antibodies, infection- […]

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Researchers identify new pathway that controls fat formation

In work suggesting new therapeutic targets to fight obesity, UT Southwestern researchers have identified a novel mechanism that regulates the creation of fat in mammals. “Obesity is a global health problem that represents a major risk for several chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer,” said Dr. Joshua Mendell, Professor of Molecular […]

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Laboratory studies identify a potential way to treat human cancers with ARID1A mutations

A new study shows that tumor cells depleted of ARID1A—a protein that acts as a cancer suppressor—become highly sensitive to anticancer poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor drugs after radiation treatment. The research, led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers, could advance efforts to treat many human cancers with loss of ARID1A that are resistant to current standard treatments, […]

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Researchers identify barriers to fungal infection diagnosis

There are several barriers that prevent the consistent use of fungal diagnostic preparations to correctly identify cutaneous fungal infections, according to a survey from a team at the George Washington University (GW). The study is published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. Cutaneous fungal infections account for between 3.5 and 6.5 million dermatologist office visits per year. Despite their […]

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New evidence shows cytotoxic T cells can identify, invade, and destroy targets of large mass like T. gondii tissue cysts

CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes can kill host cells infected with various microorganisms as well as single individual cancer cells through direct cell-to-cell contact, but their ability to destroy a target of large mass remains unexplored. A study in The American Journal of Pathology provided novel evidence on the capability of the immune system to eliminate large parasite-filled cysts associated with […]

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Scientists identify a novel neural circuit mediating visually evoked innate defensive responses

Fear overgeneralization, a condition that limits the ability to discriminate between safety and threat, is an important pathological characteristic of anxiety-related syndromes such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder. However, unlike traditional conditioned fear, the mechanism of processing innate fear is largely unknown. Prof. Wang Liping and his colleagues Zhou Zheng and Liu Xuemei […]

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23% of young black women now identify as bisexual

Since 1972, social scientists have studied the General Social Survey to chart the complexities of social change in the United States. The survey, which is conducted every couple years, asks respondents their attitudes on topics ranging from race relations to drug use. In 2008, the survey started including a question on sexual identity. As sociologists who study sexuality, we’ve noticed […]

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Scientists identify genetic factors that may cause some people to become obese

Obesity is a major public-health problem in the United States and around the world, with an estimated 650 million people suffering from the condition. One of the biggest challenges of this ever-worsening condition is figuring out why people become obese in the first place, and why some people are more vulnerable to obesity than others. Now, scientists at The Rockefeller […]

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Scientists identify new disrupted pathway in motor neurone disease

Researchers at the University of Sheffield have identified a new pathway that is disrupted in motor neurone disease (MND), a discovery which could pave the way for new treatments. The ground breaking findings were discovered by converting skin cells to brain cells called astrocytes, and comparing the energy metabolism of cells taken from MND patients versus healthy controls, using a […]

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Researchers identify faulty ‘brake’ that interferes with heart muscle’s ability to contract and relax

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic disease of the heart and a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes. Scientists have long known that the condition’s cardinal feature—an unusually thick heart muscle that contracts and relaxes abnormally—is fueled by some glitch in the heart’s molecular machinery. Yet, the sparkplug that ignites such disordered muscle […]

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