SIRT1 plays key role in chronic myeloid leukemia to aid persistence of leukemic stem cells

Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia can be treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. While these effective drugs lead to deep remission and prolonged survival, primitive leukemia stem cells resist elimination during the remission and persist as a major barrier to cure. As a result, the majority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, or CML, require indefinite inhibitor treatment to prevent disease […]

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Drug-resistant cancer cells create own Achilles heel

The cells of most patients’ cancers are resistant to a class of drugs, called proteasome inhibitors, that should kill them. When studied in the lab, these drugs are highly effective, yet hundreds of clinical trials testing proteasome inhibitors have failed. Now scientists may have solved the mystery of these cells’ surprising hardiness. The key: Resistant cancer cells have shifted how […]

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A new approach to targeting cancer cells

A University of California, Riverside, research team has come up with a new approach to targeting cancer cells that circumvents a challenge faced by currently available cancer drugs. A cancer target is often a rogue protein that signals cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and invade organs. Modern cancer drugs have emerged that work by striking a tight bond between the […]

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Why Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells grow uncontrollably

Although classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma is generally easily treatable today, many aspects of the disease still remain a mystery. A team at the Max Delbrück Center led by Professor Claus Scheidereit has now identified an important signaling molecule in the biology of this lymphoma: lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA). It helps the cancer to grow unimpeded—for example, by activating genes for immune checkpoint ligands […]

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Detailed brain map uncovers hidden immune cells that may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders

Brains contain a variety of immune cells that play an important role for brain function. A team led by Prof. Kiavash Movahedi (VIB Center for Inflammation Research at VUB) has developed a comprehensive cell atlas of the brain’s immune compartment. This revealed not only the striking diversity of brain macrophages, but also uncovered microglia where they were not expected. Remarkably, […]

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Same brain cells active during sleep and exploration in mice

Researchers have mapped the activity of individual neurons deep in the brain during sleep and exploration of novel objects in male and female mice. The study, published in JNeurosci, suggests these cells may facilitate memory formation. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons are active during rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, when dreaming—and perhaps memory consolidation—occurs. Carlos Blanco, Priyattam Shiromani, and colleagues at the […]

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Multitasking with perfection: Nerve cell works like 1400 individual cells

CT1 is different. In general, a nerve cell receives input from a number of presynaptic cells, processes the signals, and passes its output to downstream cells. In the cell CT1, however, each of the approximately 1400 cell areas works like a separate neuron. This allows CT1 to access information from all facets of the fly’s complex eye and to contribute […]

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Scientists define the role for a rare, influential set of bone marrow cells

Researchers have defined the roles of various cells in the bone marrow that are thought to control the fate of the nearly half million blood cells that develop there each day. Scientists at NYU School of Medicine behind the new work say little had been known about the fraction of cells examined in the study, the “microenvironment” that makes up […]

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Researchers discover how tumor-killing immune cells attack lymphomas in living mice

In a study that will be published April 1 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, researchers from the Institut Pasteur and INSERM reveal that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can induce tumor regression by directly targeting and killing cancer cells, uncovering new details of how these immune cells work and how their effectiveness could be improved in the treatment […]

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Retinal prion disease study redefines role for brain cells

National Institutes of Health scientists studying the progression of inherited and infectious eye diseases that can cause blindness have found that microglia, a type of nervous system cell suspected to cause retinal damage, surprisingly had no damaging role during prion disease in mice. In contrast, the study findings indicated that microglia might delay disease progression. The discovery could apply to […]

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